"I thank the Chinese government and people for their warm hospitality during the BRICS Summit. Leaving for Myanmar for a bilateral visit," PM Modi said in a tweet.
The prime minister left for Nay Pyi Taw, the capital city of Myanmar, from the southeastern Chinese city of Xiamen, where he attended the annual BRICS summit and held talks with Chinese President Xi Jinping, Russian President Vladimir Putin and other world leaders.
PM Modi is scheduled to call on Myanmar President Htin Kyaw who is also hosting a banquet for him later today. PM Modi will also hold wide-ranging talks with State Counsellor Aung San Suu Kyi tomorrow.
PM Modi had said India and Myanmar will look at strengthening existing cooperation in areas of security and counter-terrorism, trade and investment, infrastructure and energy, and culture.
He hoped his visit will help in charting a roadmap for closer cooperation between the two countries.
The prime minister said both countries will review developments in bilateral ties with a focus on "extensive" programme of development cooperation and socio-economic assistance India is undertaking in Myanmar.
PM Modi said he was looking forward to paying a visit to the famed heritage city of Bagan, where the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) has done a "stellar work" in renovating the Ananda Temple.
The ASI will be undertaking further restoration work on a number of pagodas and murals that were damaged in an earthquake last year, he said.
PM Modi had visited Myanmar in 2014 to attend the ASEAN-India Summit. The Myanmarese president and Ms Suu Kyi had visited India last year.
Myanmar is one of India's strategic neighbours and shares a 1,640-km-long border with a number of northeastern states.