The 67-year-old Belgian, who has served as IOC president since 2001, was the only candidate and needed a simple majority in the vote. The IOC voted 88-1 in favor of his re-election. Three members abstained from voting.
"You have given me a great honor. We have accomplished a lot together," Rogge said. "Our focus now is on the future. We have a lot of work to do."
Brazilian IOC member Joao Havelange asked that the vote be done simply by acclamation, but Rogge insisted on a secret ballot.
Also, the IOC elected Mario Pescante of Italy and Ser Miang Ng of Singapore as new vice-presidents, rejecting two other candidates. C K Wu of Taiwan and Samih Moudallal of Syria had also submitted candidatures for vice-president.
Craig Reedie of Britain and John D. Coates of Australia were elected to the executive board. Moudallal, Wu and Patrick Hickey of Ireland also ran for the posts.
The Olympic body also re-elected its current 106 members.
Rogge was elected the IOC's eighth president in July 2001, defeating three other candidates and taking over from Juan Antonio Samaranch after 21 years in power.
Rogge has overseen successful Summer Olympics in Athens (2004) and Beijing (2008) and Winter Games in Salt Lake City (2002) and Turin, Italy (2006).
The former orthopedic surgeon made the fight against doping his top priority in his first eight-year term, and pledged to continue the efforts to stop cheaters over the next four years.
He has also championed the creation of the Youth Olympic Games, which will debut in Singapore next year featuring athletes aged 14-18.
"We will be staunch allies of the athletes," he said. "We will narrow the gap in sports between the developed and developing worlds, and between men and women."