Chief Minister N Chandrababu Naidu handed over the appointment letter to her at the state secretariat in the presence of her parents.
Speaking on the occasion, the shuttler said she was happy to receive the appointment letter. She, however, said badminton would remain her first priority.
Mr Naidu hoped that she would score more victories and bring laurels to the country and the state.
The state government has asked Ms Sindhu to join duty as deputy collector within 30 days.
In May, the state legislature had passed a Bill amending the State Public Services Act to appoint Ms Sindhu as a Group-I officer in the government.
Following her success in the Olympics last year, Mr Naidu had announced a cash reward of Rs 3 crore, a residential plot in Amaravati and Group-I officer's job.
As she was born in Hyderabad and had been living in the city, the Telangana government also presented a cash reward of Rs 5 crore and a residential plot.
Although Telangana had also offered her a job, Ms Sindhu accepted the offer of Andhra Pradesh, the native state of her parents.