Most energy drinks consist of similar ingredients- water, sugar, caffeine, certain vitamins and minerals and non-nutritive stimulants such as guarana, taurine and ginseng. A moderate daily caffeine intake of up to 400 mg is recommended for adults. The health risks associated with energy drinks are mostly attributed to their high sugar and caffeine levels. They range from risk seeking behavior, such as aggression, substance misuse, mental health problems in the form of anxiety and stress, to increased blood pressure, obesity, kidney damage, fatigue, stomachaches and irritation.
The reports also suggested that individuals who mix energy drinks with alcohol are more likely to suffer from dehydration and alcohol poisoning.
The researchers highlight the current knowledge about the health consequences of energy drinks, policy and interventions can be put in place to reduce the negative effects on public health.