Surendra Das, a police officer posted as the Superintendent of Police in Kanpur city, consumed poison on Wednesday, police said. His condition is said to be "very critical".
Doctors at a city hospital told news agency IANS that Mr Das had been put on ventilator for respiratory support and that the next 48 hours would prove to be very critical for the officer's recovery.
A 2014 batch officer, Surendra Das attempted suicide at his official residence and was taken to the hospital by his staff.
His parents live in Lucknow and have reached Kanpur to be with Mr Das. The officer comes from Ballia in Uttar Pradesh. His wife is a doctor.
According to news agency IANS, informed sources have said that the police officer may have taken the extreme step due to marital discord. Surendra Das, a B.Tech, is known to be a good officer in police circles.