The 29-year-old was walking along a street near Jaipur's main market on Saturday afternoon when he was attacked and seriously injured by the animal.
"He was struck by the bull's horn in the neck and stomach. He was rushed to the hospital but did not survive," Chaina Ram, a local police officer, told AFP.
The Argentine embassy had been informed of his death, The Press Trust of India reporred.
Jaipur, also known as the Pink City, is the capital of the western state of Rajasthan and one of India's most popular tourist attractions, drawing visitors to its ornate palaces and forts.
A 2012 livestock census found there were more than five million stray cattle across India.
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