The proposal was made at the Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED) held in Beijing between the two countries.
"We offered them speeding up of Bengaluru-Chennai railway corridor," NITI Aayog Vice Chairman Rajiv Kumar said on Sunday.
The SED was held between delegations headed by Mr Kumar and He Lifeng, the chairman of China's National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC).
The proposal was made for increasing the speed of the corridor to 150 kmph.
India previously made a proposal to China for the redevelopment of Agra and Jhansi railway station. It has been reemphasised at yesterday's talks, officials said.
The Chinese side will respond after considering the proposals, they said.
However, there was no discussion in the just concluded SED about the collaboration to build high speed trains by China in India, he said.
China has been expressing interest to take up high speed train corridors in India and began conducting a feasibility study for New Delhi and Chennai high speed train corridor.
The first high-speed train corridor in India between Mumbai and Ahmedabad has been bagged by Japan.
China has the world's longest high-speed rail network, with 22,000 km within the country linking various top cities.