Mr Jaitley's visit to Moscow comes nearly three weeks after Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Russian President Vladimir Putin decided to "upgrade and intensify" defence ties through joint manufacture and co-production of key military hardware, during their annual summit talks at St Petersburg.
Mr Jaitley will co-chair the 17th meeting of the India-Russia Inter Governmental Commission on Military-Technical Cooperation with his Russian counterpart General Sergei Shoigu on June 23.
"The meeting will review the entire range of military and military-technical cooperation issues between India and Russia within the framework of the Special and Privileged Strategic Partnership between the two countries," the Defence Ministry said in a statement.
Mr Jaitley will co-chair the first meeting of the India-Russia High Level Committee on Science and Technology with the Deputy Prime Minister of Russia Dmitry Rogozin, on Wednesday.
This is a newly established committee to discuss cooperation in high technologies.
Russia has been one of India's key suppliers of arms and ammunition. However, it has been a long-standing grievance of armed forces that supply of critical spares and equipment from Russia takes a long time affecting maintenance of military systems procured from that country.
In March, Mr Jaitley had argued Russia should adopt a liberal approach in sharing technology for components of major defence platforms as it was critical to keep them in operational readiness as most of India's weapon systems are of Russian-origin.
A vision document, issued after the talks between Prime Minister Modi and his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin in St Petersburg, said both the countries decided to work towards a "qualitatively higher level of military-to-military cooperation".