"Our main focus will be on safety," Mr Lohani said after assuming charge at the Rail Bhawan in New Delhi.
He also said that he will also try to maintain cleanliness at railway premises and on upkeep of stations.
"I will also try to end corruption and VIP culture in the railways, as it is the lifeline of the country," Mr Lohani said.
Mr Lohani belongs to the Indian Railways Service of Mechanical Engineers of the 1980 batch.
Mr Lohani was appointed Chairman Railway Board on Wednesday, after AK Mittal stepped down following two major accidents over five days that claimed 22 lives and left over 200 people injured.
Lohani's appointment was announced hours after Railway Minister Suresh Prabhu met Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Wednesday and offered to quit after a second train derailed in Uttar Pradesh in four days, injuring 74 people.