The trial of the surface-to-surface missile was conducted from Launch Complex-4 of Integrated Test Range in Balasore district at about 8.38 am, said an official of the defence ministry.
The trial was conducted by the Strategic Forces Command of the Indian Army as part of its user training exercise, he added.
Agni II has already been inducted into the Indian Army.
It has a strike range of more than 2,000 km, is 20 metres long, weighs 17 tonnes and can carry a payload of 1,000 kg.
Get the latest election news, live updates and election schedule for Lok Sabha Elections 2019 on ndtv.com/elections. Like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter and Instagram for updates from each of the 543 parliamentary seats for the 2019 Indian general elections.