Mr Gandhi has been picked by 18 opposition parties to be their nominee for the post of vice president. His name was proposed by former PM Manmohan Singh, Sonia Gandhi and CPI-M leader Sitaram Yechuri, who was also present by his side in show of support.
The Congress was represented by senior leaders such as Ghulam Nabi Azad and Mallikarjun Kharge as the former West Bengal governor filed his papers in the parliament complex.
Also present were other opposition leaders, including JD (U)'s Sharad Yadav, CPI's D Raja, NCP's Tariq Anwar and Praful Patel, NC's Farooq Abdullah and DMK's Kanimozhi.
Mr Gandhi, who is known for his straight-talk, is the grandson of two legends of India's freedom movement, Mahatma Gandhi and C Rajagopalachari. He is the son of Mahatma Gandhi's son Devdas Gandhi and Mr Rajagopalachari's daughter Lakshmi.
The vice presidential election is scheduled to be held on August 5.
(with inputs from PTI and IANS)