The Prime Minister's Office (PMO) had written to the Bilaspur police to take appropriate action in the case, Superintendent of Police Shalabh Sinha said.
He said a case was registered on Friday night at the Kotwali police station against Subir Sen and Durga Sharan Chandra.
Mr Sen is a professor of commerce and Mr Chandra is a professor of physics at DP Vipra College in the district.
Mr Sinha said the woman, who is the widow of an Army personnel, had complained to the Sainik Kalyan Board that the accused had molested her and passed lewd remarks at her.
Mr Sinha said the Sainik Kalyan Board passed on the complaint to the Prime Minister's Office. The Bilaspur police received a letter from the PMO on December 11, directing police to take appropriate action, the official added.
After preliminary investigation, the two were booked under relevant provisions of the law. No arrest has been made so far in connection with the case, Mr Sinha said.