Three judges, including Chief Justice of India Dipak Misra, rejected the argument that screening the film may cause "serious threat" to life, property and law and order.
"Maintaining law and order is not our job. That is the job of the state. Prayer rejected," the judges responded.
Petitioner ML Sharma had challenged the U/A certificate granted by the censor board to the period drama, which is releasing next Friday after a nearly two-month delay over protests by Rajput groups and the decision by some states to ban the film.
Mr Sharma told the court that there would be "law and order problems in the country" and questioned, "If there are riots in the country after the release of the movie, who would be responsible?" He also referred to the documentary "India's Daughter" based on the Delhi gang-rape, which was banned in 2015 on grounds of "objectionable content".
"Padmaavat" is inspired by a 16th century poem on Rajput Queen Padmini, a legendary beauty who preferred to commit "Johar" or self-immolation instead of submitting to Sultan Alauddin Khilji after he killed her husband.
Rajput groups led by the Karni Sena allege denigration of the Queen and distortion of history. Earlier this year, the film was given the go-ahead by the Central Board of Film Certification or the censor board, which had asked the makers to change the title from Padmavati to Padmaavat and suggested some other modifications.
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