India remained the world's top arms importer, but its imports declined by 11 per cent between 2013-17 and 2018-22, according to a report released on Monday by Stockholm-based defence think-tank SIPRI.
The decline was linked to a complex procurement process, efforts to diversify arms suppliers and attempts to replace imports with local designs, the report said.
The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) said the five largest arms importers in the world during 2018-22 were India, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Australia and China.
The five largest arms exporters were the United States, Russia, France, China and Germany.
The imports by Pakistan, the world's eighth-largest arms importer during 2018-22, increased by 14 per cent, with China as its main supplier, the report said.
It said France's arms exports increased by 44 per cent between 2013-17 and 2018-22 and most of these exports were to countries in Asia and Oceania and the Middle East.
The report said India received 30 per cent of France's arms exports during 2018-22 and France displaced the US as the second-largest supplier of arms to India after Russia.
"France is gaining a bigger share of the global arms market as Russian arms exports decline, as seen in India for example," said Pieter D Wezeman, senior researcher with the SIPRI Arms Transfers Programme.
"This seems likely to continue as by the end of 2022, France had far more outstanding orders for arms exports than Russia," he said.
The report compared two five-year periods and noted that Russian arms supplies to India are declining.
It said the United States' share of global arms exports increased from 33 to 40 per cent, while Russia's fell from 22 to 16 per cent.
"Even as arms transfers have declined globally, those to Europe have risen sharply due to the tensions between Russia and most other European states," said Wezeman.
"Following Russia's invasion of Ukraine, European states want to import more arms, faster. Strategic competition also continues elsewhere: arms imports to East Asia have increased and those to the Middle East remain at a high level," he added.
The report said three of the top 10 importers during 2018-22 were in the Middle East -- Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Egypt.
Saudi Arabia was the world's second-largest arms importer during 2018-22 and received 9.6 per cent of all arms imports in the period, it said.
Qatar's arms imports increased by 311 per cent between 2013-17 and 2018-22, making it the world's third-biggest arms importer during 2018-22, it added.
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