"She felt unwell around 6.20 am. She was in the bathroom. When doctors arrived, they declared her dead," one of her relatives told news agency IANS.
A Padma Shri recipient, she was awarded Banga Vibhushan, West Bengal government's highest civilian award, as well as the Filmfare East Lifetime Achievement Award.
"Very saddened at the passing of legendary actress of Bengal, Supriya Chowdhury (Debi). We will fondly remember her through her films. Condolences to her family and fans," West Bengal Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee said in a tweet.
Born in 1933, in Mitkina in erstwhile Burma (now Myanmar), Ms Devi, as a kid, acted in plays directed by her father. She made her film debut with Uttam Kumar-starrer Basu Parivar in 1952. She again acted opposite Mr Kumar in Sonar Harin in 1959.
She is best remembered for her roles in Chowringhee, Bagh Bandi Khela and Meghe Dhaka Tara. Her portrayal of Neeta in Ritwik Ghatak's 1960 Bengali film Megha Dhaka Tara was appreciated by viewers as well as critics. She acted opposite Dharmendra in her first Hindi film Begaana in 1963.
Veteran actor Soumitra Chatterjee, who acted with her in Jodi Jantem and several other films, remembered working with her on so many films over the last five decades.
Supriya Devi's contemporary and veteran actor Sabitri Chattopadhyay said, "I cannot believe this news. We regularly talked over phone."