Most schools across the country of 180 million had been shut until Monday for an extended winter break in the aftermath of the Dec. 16 attack when Taliban militants broke into Army Public School and methodically killed the children.
Pakistan has long been used to almost daily militant attacks but a cold-blooded massacre of so many children has deeply scarred the nation, prompting criticism that the government was not doing enough to curb the insurgency.
In Peshawar, a chaotic, often violent city on the edge of Pakistan's lawless tribal areas, survivors of the attack returned to their studies amid tight security, some students still wearing bandages.
In an emotionally charged and nervous atmosphere, parents, some crying, met army chief Gen Raheel Sharif who had travelled to Peshawar to address them in a private meeting.
"The army chief didn't make a speech but individually met the parents and assured them they would eliminate the terrorists from the country," a security official told Reuters.
Another official said eight-feet high walls were being built around public schools in Peshawar as part of enhanced security, with hundreds of residents volunteering to protect schools.
But some parents, especially those grieving their children, stayed away from the meeting with the army chief, saying it was too painful for them to go back to the school.
"Yes I was invited to the function and meeting with the army chief. I couldn't dare to go to the school where my sweet son was ruthlessly killed," said one father. "And what would I get from meeting the army chief when they couldn't even save my young son and children of many other parents?
"It feels like my son died once again today. When I saw other children going to schools it reminded me of my son. I went to his room and helplessly sat in front of his school bags and school dress."