The Global Burden of Disease study provides new estimates on where the world currently stands in terms of meeting these goals, showing that while some countries have made significant improvements, much progress is needed.
The study is the first comprehensive analysis of trends from 1990-2014 and projections to 2030 for 188 countries.
The analysis also ranks countries on an overall health-related SDG index.
Singapore, Iceland and Sweden were the highest performing countries in terms of the overall health- related SDGs. Somalia, Central African Republic, and Afghanistan ranked lowest.
The UK was ranked 10th but, in comparison to other countries, performed poorly on indicators of child sexual abuse, alcohol use, smoking prevalence and child overweight.
The US ranked 24th and performed poorly on indicators of suicide mortality, child sexual abuse, alcohol use and homicide.
Wasting, also known as wasting syndrome, refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to "waste" away.
On the basis of past trends, more than 60 per cent of countries are projected to meet targets on under-5, neonatal and maternal mortality and malaria, and fewer than five per cent of countries are projected to meet targets on road injury mortality, childhood overweight and tuberculosis.
Established in 2015, the SDG framework is in its infancy. The findings should help shape policies and investment in order to address long-standing and emerging health challenges.
The SDGs include 232 individual indicators to monitor 17 goals and 169 targets, ranging from energy, climate change, economic growth, health and education.
The study, part of the Global Burden of Disease enterprise coordinated by the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) at the University of Washington in the US, estimates progress for 37 out of 50 health-related indicators included in the SDGs, as well as an overall health-related SDG index.