The Telugu Desam Party (TDP) president will be staging the protest on his 68th birthday to pressurise the central government to fulfill all commitments made at the time of bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh in 2014.
His announcement on Saturday came close on the heels of Prime Minister Narendra Modi's day-long huger strike on April 12 to protest disruption of Parliament.
"Is it not the central government which is responsible for parliament not functioning smoothly," asked Mr Naidu.
The second half of the budget session was washed out due to protest by various parties including the TDP, which sought to move no-confidence motion against the government after pulling out of BJP-led National Democratic Alliance (NDA).
Chandrababu Naidu's decision to go on a fast came amid ongoing protests by various political parties in the state against the centre for not fulfilling its promises.
He also announced that a massive public meeting would be organized at Tirupati on April 30 with the slogan "save the state from betrayal and conspiracy", recalling that it was in the same temple that four years ago, PM Modi, as the Prime Ministerial candidate, had promised special status but did not fulfill it after coming to power.
He recalled that TDP played a key role in government formation at the Centre in the past. "We played a key role in the National Front, United Front and NDA-1," he said.
The chief minister was speaking at a meeting at Sakhamuru in Guntur district after unveiling the model of Dr BR Ambedkar memorial park, proposed to be built at a cost of Rs 100 crore on 20 acres. Mr Naidu said 125-feet tall statue of BR Ambedkar will come up in the proposed park, which will also have a research centre. He vowed to complete the project in 18 months.
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