The 5.8-magnitude quake hit at 9:11 am (0011 GMT) off Fukushima prefecture in the Pacific Ocean with the epic centre located 34 kilometres (21 miles) under the sea, according to the US Geological Survey.
Japan's meteorological agency said there was no risk of tsunami from the earthquake.
"We have found no (new) abnormality so far" at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, said a spokesman at Tokyo Electric Power Co., the operator.
A 9.0-magnitude earthquake in March 2011 triggered a massive and deadly tsunami, which smashed into the power station and sparked the world's worst atomic accident since Chernobyl in 1986.
Fukushima police also said there were no immediate reports of damage or injuries.
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