The final descent gave Rosetta the opportunity to study the comet's gas, dust and plasma environment very close to its surface, as well as take very high-resolution images, NASA said.
The final image was taken from an altitude of 20 metres above the comet's surface by the spacecraft's OSIRIS wide-angle camera on Friday.
Comets are time capsules containing primitive material left over from the epoch when the sun and its planets formed.
Rosetta is the first spacecraft to witness at close proximity how a comet changes as it is subjected to the increasing intensity of the sun's radiation.
The decision to end the mission on the surface is a result of Rosetta and the comet heading out beyond the orbit of Jupiter again.
Farther from the sun than Rosetta had ever journeyed before, there would be little power to operate the craft.
Rosetta mission was launched in 2004 and arrived at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on August 6, 2014. It is the first mission in history to rendezvous with a comet and escort it as it orbits the sun.
On November 4, 2014, a smaller lander name Philae, which had been deployed from the Rosetta mothership, touched down on the comet and bounced several times before finally alighting on the surface.
Philae obtained the first images taken from a comet's surface and sent back valuable scientific data for several days.
Rosetta is an ESA mission with contributions from its member states and NASA.