In a gazette notification, the Home Ministry said the agreement between India and Kazakhstan concerning transfer of sentenced persons came into effect from May 26.
The agreement was signed by the nations on July 8, 2015.
It was ratified by India on October 9, 2015 and by Kazakhstan on March 4, 2016.
Under the treaty, a prisoner who wants to be transferred should notify the Indian embassy or consulate of his or her desire.
India has entered into prisoner transfer treaties with many nations that allow a person convicted of a crime to be transferred to his or her home country to serve the prison sentence.
The Repatriation of Prisoners Act 2003 was enacted by the government with a view to help foreign prisoners imprisoned in a jail in India or vice versa to be transferred to their native countries for serving the remaining part of their sentence, as part of their social rehabilitation.