Bhima Mandavi apologised for the post and blamed his social media assistants for it.
The picture showed a child urinating on Rahul Gandhi's photograph, and the accompanying caption said the Congress president was 'dividing Hindus' and his family looted the country.
The picture went viral on social media platforms on Monday before it was deleted from Bhima Mandavi's Facebook page.
"This should not have happened. Although I didn't post the picture myself but those who handle my social media profiles posted it, I have already apologised for it," Mr Mandavi told PTI.
Congress workers staged a protest over the issue outside the state BJP office in Raipur.
"The BJP should apologise publicly for this derogatory post. The post has exposed the low mentality of the ruling party leader," state Congress's chief spokesperson Sushil Anand Shukla said.
It showed BJP's frustration due to the increasing popularity of Rahul Gandhi, he said, demanding Bhima Mandavi's immediate arrest.
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