This Article is From Sep 14, 2022

Diabetes Insipidus: What Is Diabetes Insipidus? Here's Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes Insipidus: Despite the similarity in sound between the phrases "diabetes insipidus" and "diabetes mellitus," they are unrelated. Here's what you must know.

Diabetes Insipidus: What Is Diabetes Insipidus? Here's Everything You Need To Know

Diabetes Insipidus: DI can cause constant need for urinating

What is diabetes insipidus?

A rare illness called diabetes insipidus disrupts the fluid balance in the body. You create a lot of urine as a result of this imbalance. Even if you have not had anything to drink, it also makes you really thirsty.

Despite the similarity in sound between the phrases "diabetes insipidus" and "diabetes mellitus," they are unrelated. Diabetes mellitus, which can occur as type 1 or type 2 and involves elevated blood sugar levels, is a prevalent condition that is frequently referred to as “diabetes."

It is not possible to treat diabetic insipidus. But there are treatments that can quench your thirst, lessen your urination, and keep you from becoming dehydrated. Diabetes insipidus is an uncommon but manageable illness that results in excessive urine production and impaired water retention in the body. Depending on the reason, diabetes insipidus can be transitory, chronic (lifelong), mild, or severe.

What causes DI?

Antidiuretic hormone, also known as vasopressin, is primarily responsible for diabetes insipidus. Either your body doesn't produce enough of it or your kidneys don't utilise it properly.

People who have diabetes insipidus frequently urinate in big amounts and consume a lot of water because they are always thirsty. If you have diabetes insipidus and don't consume enough liquid to replenish the water lost through urination, you risk becoming dangerously dehydrated.

What is ADH?

Your brain produces an antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin), which your pituitary gland then stores and secretes.

Hormones are substances that communicate with your organs, skin, muscles, and other tissues through your blood to coordinate various bodily functions. These messages instruct your body on what to do and when.

Your brain's hypothalamus regulates both the function of your pituitary gland and your autonomic nervous system. Your pituitary gland receives the ADH it produces and stores it for later release.

The pituitary gland is a little gland that is situated beneath the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. It is a component of your endocrine system and is responsible for producing, storing, and releasing a variety of critical hormones.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms can help one navigate whether or not they are suffering from a certain condition. Here are some of the common symptoms of DI:

  • Extreme thirst
  • More than 3 litres of urine every day
  • Often leaving the bed at night to go
  • Sleeping while peeing (bed-wetting)
  • White-coloured urine
  • Low measured urine concentration
  • Dehydration
  • Weakness
  • Muscles aches
  • Irritability

How are diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus different?

Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus are two distinct diseases with different symptoms and modes of management. Since they both result in increased thirst and frequent urination, they are both referred to as “diabetes."

Diabetes mellitus, sometimes referred to as Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, or gestational diabetes, is a condition that develops when your pancreas either produces insufficient amounts of insulin or improperly uses the insulin that is produced by your body. In order to convert the food you eat into energy, your body needs insulin.

When your body doesn't produce enough antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or your kidneys don't use it properly, diabetes insipidus develops. ADH is required by your body to retain the proper amount of water. Your body loses water through urination without ADH.

Who is prone to DI?

Diabetes insipidus is more likely to occur if you:

  • have a history of diabetes insipidus in your family.
  • had a serious head injury or brain surgery.
  • Take drugs that may damage your kidneys.
  • possess specific metabolic conditions, such as excessive blood calcium or low blood potassium levels.
  • You have the chance of getting diabetes insipidus if you're pregnant.

Correct research can help you understand and even prevent many conditions. Contact your doctor if you think you might possess symptoms of DI.

Disclaimer: This content including advice provides generic information only. It is in no way a substitute for a qualified medical opinion. Always consult a specialist or your own doctor for more information. NDTV does not claim responsibility for this information.