The Hurriyet daily said Erdogan received medical attention after "briefly feeling unwell" during morning prayers at the Mimar Sinan mosque in Istanbul.
Some Turkish media reports said he had briefly fainted inside the mosque, although this was not immediately confirmed.
Erdogan said he had suffered from a blood pressure issue due to a sugar imbalance in the body.
"Thanks to God I recovered quickly. Now I am feeling good and we will continue with our programme," he said, quoted by the state-run Anadolu news agency.
Erdogan said that in the afternoon he would be attending a ceremony in Istanbul of his ruling party to mark the festival celebrating the end of the holy Muslim fasting month of Ramadan.
Muslims for the past month have been required to abstain from eating and drinking between sunrise and sunset.
Erdogan is a pious believer but has continued to follow a full political programme during the fasting month, giving speeches nearly every evening over Ramadan at fast-breaking iftar meals.
The Turkish president, a former semi-professional footballer, projects an image of a strong and vigorous leader who is in good health.
Erdogan, 63, has been in power since 2003, first as prime minister and since 2014 as Turkey's first directly elected president.
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