The foreign ministry said it called in acting US mission head Anthony Godfrey and handed him a "note of protest over the intention of the American authorities to conduct a search" at a Russian trade representation.
"We consider the planned illegitimate search of the Russian diplomatic premises without the presence of Russian officials and a threat to break down the front door as an unprecedented, aggressive act," a statement said.
"It could be used by the US intelligence services to organise an anti-Russian provocation involving planting compromising materials."
The trade facility in Washington is one of three diplomatic buildings -- including the consulate in San Francisco and an office in New York -- that the US has ordered Moscow to vacate by Saturday in the latest twist in a tit-for-tat feud.
Black smoke was seen pouring from the chimney of the consulate on Friday and firefighters confirmed its occupants were burning unidentified objects.
A spokeswoman for the Russian foreign ministry said the smoke was due to measures being taken to "preserve the building" as officials were preparing to leave.
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