Here is a summary of the recent months of political drama that led to this point:
On October 26, 2014, Rousseff was narrowly re-elected Brazil's president, continuing the poverty-fighting leftist policies of her more popular predecessor and mentor, Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.
She was later accused of fiddling government accounts to mask fiscal problems ahead of her reelection. Rousseff denies the allegation, saying previous administrations did the same.
In June 2015, Brazil tipped into its worst recession in decades. The economy shrank 3.8 percent, and is projected to contract this year by a similar amount.
Rousseff's popularity tumbled. On December 2, 2015, Congress launched the impeachment process.
"She will be seen as someone who made many mistakes and did not know how to negotiate with Congress, who is partly responsible for what happened to the economy," said Michael Mohallem, a political analyst at Rio de Janeiro's Getulio Vargas Foundation university.
The ire of March
On March 4, 2016, Lula was detained by prosecutors probing a corruption scandal involving state oil company Petrobras. He has been charged with corruption and obstruction of justice in two separate probes linked to the firm.
On March 29, Rousseff's main coalition partner, the centrist PMDB -- under her vice-president Michel Temer -- quit the government, triggering an exodus by four other parties.
On May 12, the Senate voted to suspend Rousseff from office to face an impeachment trial. Temer became interim president.
He named a pro-business government. Several of its members later resigned after being implicated in the Petrobras affair.
Trial and judgment
On August 9, as Brazil hosted the Olympic Games, the Senate voted to formally open an impeachment trial. It started on August 25.
On August 29, Rousseff made a stern defense in person, urging senators to reject a "coup" and uphold democracy.
On August 31, after days of emotional debate, a majority of senators voted to remove her from office for good.
Temer was sworn in shortly thereafter.
(This story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is auto-generated from a syndicated feed.)