Scientists Develop Health-Monitoring Sleepwear Garment "Phyjamas"

"Such pressured regions of the textile are potential locations where we can measure ballistic movements," explained Professor Trisha L. Andrew.

Scientists Develop Health-Monitoring Sleepwear Garment 'Phyjamas'

Scientists develop fabric-based sensor to monitor health in sleep (Representational image)

Washington DC:

The scientists predict that future garment will come with unobtrusive, portable devices for monitoring heart rate and respiratory rhythm during sleep. They have for now developed a physiological-sensing textiles called "phyjamas".

Graduate students Ali Kiaghadi and S Zohreh Homayounfar, with their professors Trisha L Andrew, a materials chemist, and computer scientist Deepak Ganesan introduced their health-monitoring sleepwear at the Ubicomp 2019 conference in London.

"Generally, people assume that smart textiles refer to tightly worn clothing that has various sensors embedded in it for measuring physiological and physical signals, but this is clearly not a solution for everyday clothing and in particular, sleepwear," explained Professor Trisha L. Andrew.

"Our insight was that even though sleepwear is worn loosely, there are several parts of such a textile that are pressed against the body due to our posture and contact with external surfaces. This includes pressure exerted by the torso against a chair or bed, pressure when the arm rests on the side of the body while sleeping and light pressure from a blanket over the sleepwear," Mr Ganesan added.

"Such pressured regions of the textile are potential locations where we can measure ballistic movements caused by heartbeats and breathing and these can be used to extract physiological variables," he explained.

The difficulty is that these signals can be individually unreliable, particularly in loose-fitting clothing, but signals from many sensors placed across different parts of the body can be intelligently combined to get a more accurate composite reading.

Researchers explained that their team had to come up with several new ideas to make their vision a reality. They realised that there is no existing fabric-based method to sense continuous and dynamic changes in pressure, particularly given the small signals that they needed to measure. 

So they designed a new fabric-based pressure sensor and combined that with a triboelectric sensor -- one activated by a change in physical contact -- to develop a distributed sensor suite that could be integrated into loose-fitting clothing like pajamas.

They also developed data analytics to fuse signals from many points that took into account the quality of the signal coming in from each location.

The authors reported that this combination allowed them to detect physiological signals across many different postures.

They performed multiple user studies in both controlled and natural settings and showed that they can extract heartbeat peaks with high accuracy, breathing rate with less than one beat per minute error, and perfectly predict sleep posture.

A paper detailing their work has been chosen for publication in the proceedings of Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies (IMWUT) conference.