Cries heard by villagers produced the miracle rescue of the infant now recovering in hospital.
The 16-year-old mother buried the boy in a graveyard in an attempt "to get rid of him" a few days after secretly giving birth at her parents' house in Barwani district, a police official said.
The identities of the mother and child are being kept secret in keeping with the law.
Children playing nearby reported hearing muffled cries and raised the alarm on July 3. The baby was found under about 10 inches of mud, reports said.
The infant had been bitten by insects and was suffering from cold but was getting better and would be transferred to a state children's home, officials said.
"The victim decided to get rid of the child and buried him in a pit near her parents' home," Barwani police chief Prashant Khare told news agency AFP.
She later returned to her in-laws' home in neighbouring Maharashtra, the officer said.
Police said the mother could face attempted manslaughter charges.
The girl claimed she conceived after being sexually assaulted by a local teenager. A 17-year-old youth was arrested on rape charges yesterday.
The girl's parents had forced her to marry in an attempt to cover up the assault but her husband refused to accept the child.