Mr Sharma faces six criminal cases in Gujarat. He has unsuccessfully tried to convince the Supreme Court to order that the investigations against him be transferred from the Gujarat police to the federal CBI to ensure that he is given a free trial.
The top court has ordered him to delete what is described as "scurrilous" allegations against Mr Modi listed in his petition. Judges have also refused to permit him to travel to the US to meet his wife and son, who are American citizens.
Mr Sharma, 59, was suspended by the government in 2010 after he was arrested on corruption charges; he was later granted bail.
Mr Sharma claims that he has taped conversations between Mr Shah and a senior police officer that prove the law was violated to tail the woman.
He also says he is being targeted because his brother, senior police officer Kuldeep Sharma, took on the Modi government by refusing to participate in alleged cover-ups for extra-judicial killings.
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