As the anti-ship missile was gravity-dropped from the Sukhoi-30MKI or Su-30 from fuselage, the two-stage missile's engine fired up and propelled towards the intended target at the sea in Bay of Bengal, said a statement.
The missile is expected to have a range close to 300 km.
The ministry says the test-flight will significantly bolster the IAF's air combat operations capability.
BrahMos is now capable of being launched from land, sea and air, completing the tactical cruise missile triad for India. Earlier, BrahMos could only be fired from ships or ground-based launchers.
India creates a world record and completes Supersonic Cruise Missile Triad by successfully testing #BRAHMOS#ALCM from Indian Air Force Sukhoi-30MKI fighter aircraft. Smt @nsitharaman congratulates Team Brahmos & @DRDO_India for this historic achievement.— Raksha Mantri (@DefenceMinIndia) November 22, 2017
The missile, weighing 2.5 tonnes, is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on India's Su-30 fighter aircraft modified to carry weapons.
BrahMos is named after the rivers Moscow and Brahmaputra; the world's only supersonic cruise missile was built as an India-Russia collaboration.