As the anti-ship missile was gravity-dropped from the Sukhoi-30MKI or Su-30 from fuselage, the two-stage missile's engine fired up and propelled towards the intended target at the sea in Bay of Bengal, said a statement.
The missile is expected to have a range close to 300 km.
The ministry says the test-flight will significantly bolster the IAF's air combat operations capability.
India creates a world record and completes Supersonic Cruise Missile Triad by successfully testing #BRAHMOS#ALCM from Indian Air Force Sukhoi-30MKI fighter aircraft. Smt @nsitharaman congratulates Team Brahmos & @DRDO_India for this historic achievement.— Raksha Mantri (@DefenceMinIndia) November 22, 2017
The missile, weighing 2.5 tonnes, is the heaviest weapon to be deployed on India's Su-30 fighter aircraft modified to carry weapons.
BrahMos is named after the rivers Moscow and Brahmaputra; the world's only supersonic cruise missile was built as an India-Russia collaboration.