2. The intensive campaign by Prime Minister Narendra Modi galvanised the BJP cadre and gave the party a push in the last stages of the battle.
3. The Hindu-Muslim polarisation in the coastal belt. This gave the BJP an extra 15.7% swing in votes in this area and 12 extra seats.
4. This religious polarisation also impacted the 24 seats where the percentage of Muslim voters is highest (above 25%-50% per seat). These 24 seats are mainly in towns and cities dotted around the state. The voters of the Hindus in these seats consolidated and the BJP gained an 18.6% swing in these seats.
5. The campaign by Yogi Adityanath in these areas helped the BJP among Hindu voters especially the upper castes.
6. The improvement of the Vokkaliga support for the Janata Dal Secular or JD(S) and away from the Congress reduced the Congress vote in the Vokkaliga areas of the south. Both the JD(S) and the BJP gained from the Congress loss of Vokkaliga votes.
8. The role of money power and handouts to voters - cash as well as alcohol - hit a new high in these elections. Local reports suggest that the amount of money the BJP had was 5 times higher than the Congress (though we could not verify this independently).
9. The Muslim vote shifted away from the JD(S) mainly because of the allegations that the JDS has secretly allied with the BJP. In seats where the JD(S) was strong but saw a dent in Muslim vote, the BJP won those seats.
10. The youth - especially young Lingayat voters - are still a strong vote base for Modi. The PM's popularity amongst the youth is solid.