The Supreme Court's decision left in place a ruling by the federal court in Washington that judged the report did not fall under rules that require certain government records be made public.
The 6,700 page report examined in depth the Central Intelligence Agency's program of secret detention and torture of Al-Qaeda suspects in the wake of the 9/11 attacks.
It details the rendition of suspects to CIA "black sites" and the use of illegal torture methods like waterboarding on them to extract information.
It also reportedly deeply questioned the effectiveness of the techniques, later banned by the Obama administration.
About 500 pages were declassified for public release when the report was completed, with enough information to bring heavy criticism on the CIA and the government of president George W Bush, which authorized the program.
Only a handful of copies of the report exist, distributed to several government departments and intelligence bodies.
Fearing that those copies could be destroyed to eliminate any detailed record of the torture program, last December president Barack Obama said one copy would be held in his presidential library, to be built in Chicago.
Obama refused to declassify the report, but said it would become open to the public in 12 years.
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