"If the US side disregards opposition from China and the international community and insists on carrying out unilateralism and trade protectionism, the Chinese side will take them on until the end at any cost," the Ministry of Commerce said in a statement on its website.
"We don't want a trade war, but we aren't afraid of fighting one."
Trump threatened an additional $100 billion in tit-for-tat tariffs on Beijing Thursday, in the latest step in an escalating trade dispute.
The US president has said he will impose steep tariffs on steel and aluminum imports, which would hit China.
China responded with proposed tariffs on fresh fruit, pork and recycled aluminum, accounting for $3 billion of US exports last year.
In a speech Thursday, Trump said "in light of China's unfair retaliation," he had instructed trade officials to "consider whether $100 billion of additional tariffs would be appropriate."
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