Shortly after 5 p.m. (1230 GMT) a man driving a motorbike detonated a large bomb at a busy roundabout in the north city of Kunduz near a group of police officers, provincial police chief spokesman Sayed Sarwar Hussaini said.
"As a result of a suicide attack 10 policemen were killed, including the head of the traffic department and the head of the counter-terrorism office," said Mr Hussaini.
Four civilians and five other police officers were wounded in the bombing, he said.
No-one has claimed responsibility for the attack but militants, including the Taliban, are active in the area.
The attack came a day after a suicide bomber in a car killed at least five civilians and wounded 15 others when he attacked a NATO convoy in the north eastern province of Kapisa.
Responsibility for that attack was claimed by the Taliban via spokesman Zabihullah Mujahid.
Taliban militants have been waging an 11-year war against Afghan President Hamid Karzai and a U.S.-led NATO force.