The draft bill proposes three-year jail with no scope for bail for the controversial Islamic practice that allows men to leave their wives immediately by saying "talaq" or divorce three times.
The Uttar Pradesh government approved the draft bill Tuesday night at a meeting of the state cabinet chaired by Mr Adityanath, who is also the head priest of the Gorakhnath temple, news agency Press Trust of India reported.
"The centre's draft bill on 'triple talaq' has been endorsed by the cabinet. The centre had asked the states to send their respective views on it by December 10," Uttar Pradesh government spokesperson and cabinet minister Siddharth Nath Singh said.
In doing so, Uttar Pradesh has become the first state to endorse the draft bill to be introduced in the winter session of parliament starting December 15, a government official familiar with the matter said.
The Supreme Court in August banned the practice of "triple talaq", calling it "unconstitutional". The verdict vindicates the stand of the government, which had said "triple talaq" violates fundamental rights of women.
"Sixty-six cases of instant 'triple talaq' have been reported after the Supreme Court order this year... Uttar Pradesh tops the list," said the official who asked not to be named.
Several Muslim women who have been divorced because of it, including on Skype and on WhatsApp, had appealed to the top court to end the practice.
The All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB), a non-governmental body which oversees the application of Muslim personal law, opposes any ban on "triple talaq" and argues this is a religious matter and not for the courts.
The BJP has long pushed for a uniform civil code to be enforced which would end the reach of different religious laws in civil issues, sanctioned originally to protect the independence of different faiths.
With inputs from PTI