The size of the council of ministers has led to critics describing it as far removed from the PM's promise of "minimum government and maximum governance" made during his campaign for the general election.
"If this was a reform-minded government, you would be reducing the numbers of people and portfolios, shedding ministries," said Manoj Joshi, a political expert at Observer Research Foundation in New Delhi.
Some political analysts say the PM's party, the BJP, suffers from a shortage of experienced members.
A number of new ministers belong to backward castes, which will play a critical role in next year's election in the largest state of Uttar Pradesh. Important states like Gujarat and Punjab will also choose their next governments soon.