Former Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu faces a tight race on Tuesday as he bids for a return to power in an election that could turn on support from a far-right party whose leaders call for those deemed disloyal to Israel to be expelled.
With the country going through its fifth election in less than four years, voter exasperation may hurt turnout, but surging support for the ultranationalist Religious Zionism bloc and firebrand co-leader Itamar Ben-Gvir has galvanized the race.
Israel's longest-serving premier, Netanyahu is on trial on corruption charges, which he denies, but his rightist Likud party is still expected to finish as the largest in parliament.
Final opinion polls published last week however showed him still short of the 61 seats needed for a majority in the 120-seat Knesset, opening the prospect of weeks of coalition wrangling and possibly new elections.
Security and surging prices have topped the list of voter concerns in a campaign triggered by outgoing centrist Prime Minister Yair Lapid's decision to seek an early election following defections from his ruling coalition.
The campaign has also taken place against a backdrop of months of violence in the occupied West Bank.
However, policy disputes have been overshadowed by the outsized personality of Netanyahu, whose legal battles have fed the stalemate blocking Israel's political system since he was indicted on bribery, fraud and breach of trust charges in 2019.
As Netanyahu's legal problems have continued, Ben-Gvir and fellow far-right leader Bezalel Smotrich have eaten into Likud's traditional hawkish base and the once-marginal Religious Zionism is now set to be the third-largest party in parliament.
Ben-Gvir - a former member of Kach, a group on Israeli and U.S. terrorist watchlists - has moderated some earlier positions, but the prospect of his joining a coalition government led by Netanyahu risks alarming Washington.
Lapid has campaigned on diplomatic advances well as the economic record of the unlikely coalition formed after the last election that mixed right-wing, centrist and, for the first time, an Arab party.
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