Study Says Earth's Inner Core Rotating Slower Than Surface

New research published in the journal Nature Geoscience analysed seismic waves from repeating earthquakes over the last six decades.

Study Says Earth's Inner Core Rotating Slower Than Surface

Experts not involved in the study expressed caution about its findings

Research says that Earth's solid inner core, a hot iron ball, has stopped spinning faster than the planet's surface and might now be rotating slower than it.

The Earth's core is roughly 5,000 kilometres (3,100 miles) below the surface we live on, this "planet within the planet" can spin independently because it floats in the liquid metal outer core, an AFP report said.

Exactly how the inner core rotates has been a matter of debate between scientists - and the latest research is expected to prove controversial.

What little we know about the inner core comes from measuring the tiny differences in seismic waves - created by earthquakes or sometimes nuclear explosions - as they pass through the middle of the Earth.

Seeking to track the inner core's movements, new research published in the journal Nature Geoscience analysed seismic waves from repeating earthquakes over the last six decades.

The study's authors, Xiaodong Song and Yi Yang of China's Peking University, told the news agency, "We believe the inner core rotates, relative to the Earth's surface, back and forth, like a swing."

"One cycle of the swing is about seven decades", they added.

The inner core started rotating slightly faster than the rest of the planet in the early 1970s, the study said.

But it had been slowing down before coming in sync with Earth's rotation around 2009, it added.

There has been a "negative trend" since, the study said, meaning the inner core is now rotating slower than the surface.

So far there is little to indicate that what the inner core does has many effects on surface dwellers.

But the researchers said they believed there are physical links between all of Earth's layers, from the inner core to the surface.

"We hope our study can motivate some researchers to build and test models which treat the whole Earth as an integrated dynamic system," they said.

Experts not involved in the study expressed caution about its findings, pointing to several other theories and warning that many mysteries remain about the centre of the Earth.

"This is a very careful study by excellent scientists putting in a lot of data," said John Vidale, a seismologist at the University of Southern California.

"(But) none of the models explain all the data very well in my opinion," he added.

Vidale published research last year suggesting the inner core oscillates far more quickly, swinging around every six years or so. His work was based on seismic waves from two nuclear explosions in the late 1960s and early 1970s.

That timeframe is around the point when Monday's research says the inner core was last in sync with Earth's rotation - which Vidale called "kind of a coincidence".

Another theory - which Vidale said has some good evidence supporting it - is that the inner core only significantly moved between 2001 to 2013 and has stayed put since.

Hrvoje Tkalcic, a geophysicist at the Australian National University, has published research suggesting that the inner core's cycle is every 20 to 30 years, rather than the 70 proposed in the latest study.

"These mathematical models are most likely all incorrect because they explain the observed data but are not required by the data," Tkalcic said.

"Therefore, the geophysical community will be divided about this finding and the topic will remain controversial."

Differences aside, the study could aid the scientists' understanding of how processes deep inside our planet affect its surface. We live on the surface - known as the crust - believed to be dynamically linked to its other layers, tied by an electromagnetic coupling and bound to the mantle by gravitational forces.

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