The court of Judicial Magistrate First Class Bhavesh Kumar Watti rejected the bail application, Mr Verma's lawyer Faisal Rizvi told reporters.
The defence sought bail on various grounds, including lack of evidence, he said.
The court said the arguments put forward could not be discussed during a hearing on bail and that the charges against the journalist were serious, Rizvi added.
The defence would now move the sessions court for bail, he said.
Special Public Prosecutor Suresh Prasad Sharma said he opposed Mr Verma's plea, contending that he could influence the witnesses and tamper with the evidence, if granted bail.
Mr Verma is currently in judicial custody till November 13. He was sent to judicial remand on October 31, after three days of police custody.
Mr Verma had, after his arrest by the Raipur police from Ghaziabad in Uttar Pradesh on October 27, said he was in possession of a "sex tape" of a Chhattisgarh minister.
According to the Raipur police, a case of blackmailing and extortion was registered at the Pandri police station, on a complaint by BJP leader Prakash Bajaj, who alleged that he was being "harassed over the phone by an unidentified caller", who told him that he had a "CD of his master".
Following an investigation, a police team was sent to Ghaziabad and Mr Verma was arrested in connection with the case, the police had said.
They had also claimed to have seized 500 "porn" CDs, a pen drive and a laptop from Verma's possession.
After the journalist's arrest, the "sex-video", allegedly involving a Chhattisgarh minister, surfaced in Raipur, triggering a political storm
with opposition Congress and ruling BJP targeting each other on the issue.
The Chhattisgarh government has recommended a CBI probe into the alleged sex CD row.
The minister had lodged a complaint against Mr Verma and Chhattisgarh Congress chief Bhupesh Baghel at the Civil Lines police station in Raipur.