The 35-riyal ($10) levy is to be introduced this week, Hamad International Airport (HIA) said in a statement.
The fee, to be added to airline ticket prices, will apply to tickets issued on or after August 30, as well as for travel starting on or after December 1.
"The charge is in line with International Civil Aviation Organisation principles to support the development of world leading airports such as HIA," it said.
Gas-rich Qatar, which is to host football's World Cup 2022, has warned it will run a budget deficit of more than $12 billion in 2016, its first in 15 years.
In June, officials warned that more deficits would follow in 2017 and 2018, as an era of lower oil prices forces Arab states of the traditionally taxes-free Gulf region to adapt.