A High Court judge in Northern Ireland's capital Belfast on Monday rejected Facebook's attempt to have the claim by the girl struck out, The Guardian reported on Monday.
The victim is also taking a legal action against the man who allegedly posted the picture on Facebook.
A lawyer for the teenager even compared the publishing of the photo to a method of child abuse.
The girl has sought damages for misuse of private information, negligence and breach of the Data Protection Act.
Her photograph was said to have been posted on a so-called shame page on Facebook several times between November 2014 and January 2016.
Facebook's lawyers relied on a European directive that they claimed provides protection from having to monitor a vast amount of online material for what is posted on one page.
The case against Facebook and the man who it is claimed originally posted the picture will now move to full trial in Belfast at a later date.