Trump decided last month to pull the United States out of the Paris accord on climate change, saying it would wipe out US jobs. Climate policy is expected to be a key bone of contention at the G20 summit German Chancellor Angela Merkel is hosting on Friday and Saturday.
"We'll tell him it's important to take a lead role in tackling climate change and creating good jobs," Trudeau told mass-selling Bild newspaper.
Trudeau added there was no doubt that climate change was happening. He said climate change was a challenge, but also an opportunity to invest.
He added that the same was true of global trade. Trump has advocated more protectionist measures.
"Instead of saying we'll stop trade, we need to create opportunities for smaller companies and protect workers' rights with progressive trade agreements like CETA," Trudeau said, referring to the EU-Canada trade deal.
Asked about China, the Canadian leader said it had understood that trade with other countries was a way to alleviate poverty.
He said Canada was talking to China about workers' rights, environmental protection and topics "where China has not always felt comfortable".
"I think it's important to formulate clear rules based on principles," he said.