Economists surveyed by Reuters had forecast 5.9 per cent growth in output compared with a downward revised 7.0 per cent annual increase in February.
Annual output growth was 4.3 per cent during the fiscal year that ended in March 2018, lower than 4.6 per cent in the previous year, data released on Friday by the Ministry of Statistics shows.
Manufacturing, which contributes 78 per cent of industrial output, grew 4.5 per cent last fiscal year, up from 4.4 per cent a year ago, as big companies adjust following teething troubles with a national Goods and Services Tax launched last year.
The Reserve Bank of India, which is due to hold its next policy meeting on June 6, is widely expected to hold rates after having kept policy rates unchanged for the fourth straight meeting in April.
The biggest risk that Asia's third-largest economy faces is rising crude oil prices, which hit $78 a barrel on Thursday, their highest since November 2014 following prospects of new U.S. sanctions on Iran.
India meets 80 per cent of its oil needs from imports.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who is expected to try for a second term in general elections next year, has taken several steps to attract investments.
On Wednesday, Walmart Inc announced plans to acquire a majority stake in India's e-commerce firm Flipkart by paying $16 billion, the US retailer's largest-ever deal, a sign of confidence among investors in India's growth story.
Modi plans to spend Rs 5.97 lakh crore ($89.7 billion) on infrastructure in the 2018/19 fiscal year, more than three times what was allocated in 2014/15.
The government expects the $2.5-trillion economy could grow more than 7 per cent in the current fiscal year that began in April, up from an estimated 6.6 per cent the previous year.
(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)
Follow NDTV for latest election news and live coverage of assembly elections 2019 in Maharashtra and Haryana.
Subscribe to our YouTube channel, like us on Facebook or follow us on Twitter and Instagram for latest news and live news updates.