Air Force spokesman Colonel Pat Ryder said the plane crashed in an unpopulated area about six miles (10 kilometers) southwest of National Harbor.
He said the plane was based at Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, which is also home to the president's plane, Air Force One.
"The pilot ejected and is safe," Ryder told AFP.
The F-16 was part of the 113th Wing of DC's Air National Guard.
Investigators will launch a probe.
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