That was a median 5.2 per cent above consensus forecasts, the biggest beat since the March 2016 quarter.
According to the data, Indian companies' total profits are expected to grow 25 per cent in the next fiscal year, which would be the highest in Asia.
Analysts said the results in the quarter were a needed validation for a stock market that has surged this year on bets that earnings would improve. This follows India's action to remove high-value currency bills late last year that dented the cash-dependant economy, leading to several quarters of sluggish profit growth.
The results also highlighted how Indian companies withstood the unveiling of a national goods and services tax on July 1, which sent profits down 3.1 per cent for the Nifty companies in the April-June quarter as they curbed production to prepare for the tax rollout.
"It's the beginning of better times, as far as India Inc is concerned," said Deven Choksey, promoter of KR Choksey Group.
"The economy is gaining momentum, this is the beginning of higher earnings for the corporate sector."
The NSE index has surged nearly 27 per cent this year, setting a record-breaking rally.
Sectors such as consumer goods and auto makers posted strong profit growth, in a welcome indication that demand was improving, analysts said.
Tata Motors Ltd reported a nearly three-fold jump in quarterly profit at Rs 2,483 crore ($386 million), blowing past estimates for the September quarter.
Energy and metals companies also performed well in the quarter, helped by higher commodity prices.
Reliance Industries Ltd, for example, posted a 7.3 percent rise in standalone profit at Rs 8,265 crore ($1.28 billion), its highest ever.
But telecom firms posted a drop in profits as the sector continues to be hurt by cutthroat competition from upstart Jio Infocomm, while healthcare stocks were hit by regulatory scrutiny and pricing pressure in the key United States market.
(Except for the headline, this story has not been edited by NDTV staff and is published from a syndicated feed.)