One report suggested that the workers couldn't see the dog as they were working at night and it was dark.
"A fresh layer of coal tar was being laid on the road from Phool Sayyed crossing towards the Circuit House and the Taj Mahal. A dog was sleeping on one side of the road. Instead of chasing the animal or removing it physically, burning coal tar was poured over it. Later, a road roller crushed the animal. The body has now disappeared," social activist Naresh Paras told PTI.
Govind Parashar, a right-wing activist in Agra, claimed that he saw the dog's legs buried under the newly-built road and it was squirming in pain. Moments later, he alleged, the dog died.
"I felt really bad and I wanted to bury the dog, so we got the dog's body dug out," he said.
"I also wanted that road construction workers get a lesson so that they don't do this again, so I filed a complaint against the construction company," Mr Parashar told ANI.
Activists from various organisations gathered at the spot and seized the vehicles of the construction crew. They also demonstrated outside the Sadar police station in Agra to demand action against the "dog killers."
A Public Works Department engineer, Naresh Kumar, said the construction company, RP Infraventure Private Limited, would be sent notice as a warning.
Following the report, social activists and dog lovers vented their anger on social media.
The photographs of the half-buried dog were shared on social media early today. Angry comments from social activists and dog lovers prompted Agra's Sadar police department to register an FIR against unknown persons.
Anand Rai, a social activist, said, "Height of cruelty." Saloni Rana commented "what else these insensitive people can do. Should be criticised and punished... where's the world going!!"
Senior journalist Sunayan Chaturvedi said "(it was) an act that shames humanity."
The project's contractor in-charge said an inquiry was underway and "those found guilty would be shunted out as punishment."