McCartney, who first came to India in 1966, sent a letter to Maharashtra Forest Minister Patangrao Kadam to use his power to immediately rescue Sunder.
The baby elephant is currently kept at the Jyotiba Temple in Kolhapur district of Maharashtra and the singer wants him to be moved to his natural habitat.
"I have seen photographs of young Sunder, the elephant kept alone in a shed at Jyotiba Temple and put in chains with spikes. Years of his life have been ruined by keeping him and abusing him in this way and enough is enough. I most respectfully call on you to get Sunder out," McCartney wrote in his letter.
His plea followed animal rights organisation PETA (People for Ethical Treatment of Animals) India's discovery that Sunder was being abused by his handler, who has gone on the run from the police since the group became involved.
The elephant was donated to the temple by Maharashtra legislator Vinay Kore.