Tamil Nadu Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa has said that nine personnel from the Sri Lankan Air Force, who are being trained in Chennai, must immediately be sent back.
The jawans arrived recently at the Tambaram Air Force station in Chennai for a nine-month training period.
"It's inappropriate when countries are demanding action against Lanka for violations during the war," Ms Jayalalithaa said. "This is anti-Tamils. I condemn it," she added.
Opposition parties have agreed. DMK chief M Karunanidhi has backed the demand for expulsion. MDMK chief V Gopalswamy, popularly known as Vaiko, has warned of a huge protest outside the air force base.
The Indian Air Force says that the centre must decide what happens next, since the training was agreed upon by the governments of both countries.
Political parties in Tamil Nadu together pressured the Central government into voting against Sri Lanka last year at a session of the UN Human Rights Council. The resolution asks Sri Lanka to investigate alleged human rights violations during the final phase of the country's civil war with the Tamil Tigers. Sri Lankan forces ended the war in May 2009 after nearly three decades. Tamils, who are in the minority in Sri Lanka, have regularly complained of discrimination. Their alleged abuse and exploitation is a politically-volatile issue in Tamil Nadu.